Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) represents one of the most aggressive endocrine tumors. In spite of a correct therapeutic strategy based on a multidisciplinary approach between endocrinologist, surgeon and oncologist, the prognosis is often poor. Surgery is the mainstay treatment in ACC. Mitotane, a dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane derivate, represents the main medical treatment of ACC in consideration of its adrenocytolitic activity and it is mainly employed as adjuvant treatment after complete surgical resection and for the treatment of advanced ACC. However, the use of mitotane as adjuvant therapy is still controversial, also in consideration of the retrospective nature of several studies. The recurrence of disease is frequent, especially in advanced disease at the diagnosis. Therefore, in these contexts, conventional chemotherapy must be considered in association with mitotane, being the combination etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin (EDP) the standard of care in this setting. A more modern therapeutic approach, based on the need of a salvage therapy for advanced ACC that progresses through first-line EDP, is focused on molecular-targeted therapies. However, robust clinical trials are necessary to assess the real efficacy of these treatments.
- Adrenocortical carcinoma
- Immune checkpoint inhibitors