Persistence or recurrence of angina after a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may affect about 20-40% of patients during short-medium-term follow-up. This appears to be true even when PCI is 'optimized' using physiology-guided approaches and drug-eluting stents. Importantly, persistent or recurrent angina post-PCI is associated with a significant economic burden. Healthcare costs may be almost two-fold higher among patients with persistent or recurrent angina post-PCI vs. those who become symptom-free. However, practice guideline recommendations regarding the management of patients with angina post-PCI are unclear. Gaps in evidence into the mechanisms of post-PCI angina are relevant, and more research seems warranted. The purpose of this document is to review potential mechanisms for the persistence or recurrence of angina post-PCI, propose a practical diagnostic algorithm, and summarize current knowledge gaps.
- Coronary microvascular dysfunction
- Coronary spasm
- Coronary stenosis
- Percutaneous coronary intervention
- Stable angina