Background: Despite an increased use of non-invasive ventilatory strategies and gentle ventilation, pneumothorax remains a common complication in preterm infants. The ventilator management of infants with air leaks remains challenging in terms of both prevention and treatment. Recently the safety and efficacy of expectant management avoiding chest tube drainage to treat large air leak in preterm infants hemodynamically stable has been reported. Case presentation: In the present study, we report five cases of preterm infants with birth weight â¤ 1250 g affected by respiratory distress syndrome and treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure as first intention. They were intubated for worsening of respiratory distress with increasing oxygen requirement and concomitant increase of respiratory rate and PCO2values due to occurrence of pneumothorax, and they were successfully treated using high-frequency oscillatory ventilation without chest tube insertion. Conclusion: In our experience high-frequency oscillatory ventilation provided a conservative management of a significant pneumothorax in preterm newborns hemodynamically stable and requiring mechanical ventilation. This approach allowed us to avoid the increasing of air leak and the insertion of chest tube drainage and all the subsequent associated risks.
- Chest drainage
- Pediatrics, Perinatology and Child Health
- Preterm infants