Introduction: Patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) experience intestinal microflora changes that can promote the overgrowth and subsequent translocation of gut resident pathogens into the blood. Consistently, CDI due to PCR-ribotype 027 strain, severe or relapsing CDI, and treatment with high-dosage vancomycin are independent risk factors for candidemia. Areas covered: We review the role played by the gut microbiota during CDI and its treatment, as well as the clinical profile of CDI patients who are at risk of developing candidemia. Also, we discuss the management of these patients by focusing on pre-emptive strategies aimed at reducing the risk of candidemia, and on innovative anti-C. difficile therapies that may mitigate CDI-related effects such as the altered gut microbiota composition and prolonged intestinal mucosa damage. Expert commentary: A closer clinical and diagnostic monitoring of patients with CDI should help to limit the CDI-associated long-term consequences, including Candida infections, which worsen the outcome of hospitalized patients.
- Candida bloodstream infection
- Candida colonization
- Clostridium difficile infection
- Infectious Diseases
- Microbiology (medical)
- PCR-ribotype 027
- oral vancomycin