Short-lived systemic inflammatory reactions arising from disrupted rules in the innate immune system are the operating platforms of hereditary autoinflammatory disorders (HAIDs). Multiple organs may be involved and aseptic inflammation leading to disease-specific phenotypes defines most HAIDs. Lungs are infrequently involved in children with HAIDs: the most common pulmonary manifestation is pleuritis in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), respectively caused by mutations in the MEFV and TNFRSF1A genes, while interstitial lung disease can be observed in STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI), caused by mutations in the TMEM173 gene. The specific pleuropulmonary diseases may range from sub-clinical abnormalities during inflammatory flares of FMF and TRAPS to a severe life-threatening disorder in children with SAVI.
- Lung involvement