A field experiment was performed with the aim to assess the amount of penconazole losses during field application and the spatial variability of penconazole concentration in a vineyard soil, under two different management techniques (tilled and grass covered). The field dissipation of penconazole under the two techniques was also followed for 114 days, highlighting the effects of spatial variability of the initial concentration and of the grass covering in terms of the different soil metabolic activity. Data found show that a high percentage of penconazole, from 42.5 % to 67.43 %, can reach the soil during the treatments, despite the fact that penconazole is applied to the foliage. The high values of the coefficient of variation for data within rows show considerable variability in all applications, ranging from 30 to 65 in the first application, from 35 to 79 in the second and from 36 to 75 in the third. Since the applications of penconazole occurred under almost same climatic conditions in terms of wind speed and direction, the high variability of concentration of penconazole found within mid-rows was attributed to the uneven slope of the vineyard causing an irregular speed of the sprayer equipment. However, least significant differences of the mean values did not end in a significant difference of penconazole concentration among mid-rows for all applications, indicating that the variability between rows does not contribute to the overall variability. The calculated half-life values for penconazole in tilled soil were 62.4 days for tilled and 33.0 for grassed soil, highlighting the tendency of penconazole to faster dissipate in grassed than in tilled soil. Grassed soil was characterised by a higher metabolic activity in terms of microbial biomass carbon content, basal respiration and total hydrolytic activity, than tilled soil. A significant correlation between penconazole dissipation and total hydrolytic activity, was found. The faster dissipation of penconazole in grassed soil was attributed to the higher amount of the total hydrolytic activity which, in grassed soil, was 1.5 fold-higher than in tilled soil.
|Numero di pagine||8|
|Rivista||JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND HEALTH. PART B. PESTICIDES, FOOD CONTAMINANTS, AND AGRICULTURAL WASTES|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Pubblicato - 2011|
- soil management,
- soil metabolic activity
- spatial variability,