Unlike the genome that contains a large but finite number of genes, the number and the kind of environmental factors is unknown. Consequently, to date, it is not possible to talk about of “environome” comparable to the genome. It is hard to classify the number and types of environments that can be relevant for alcohol dependence and other conditions, making it very difficult to develop association studies on the entire environment. The range of potential environmental influences on the development of alcohol-related disorders is broad and varied from chemical environment (eg, exposure to ethanol or other psychoactive substances) to a wide range of social factors (eg. cultural influences) and also includes specific factors throughout life (eg, prenatal exposure, social roles that vary over the life). The definition of endophenotypes relevant to brain function, together with the detailed study of environmental factors, can facilitate our understanding of alcohol related disorders.