The incidence of iatrogenic injuries of the bile ducts has increased significantly since laparascopic cholecystectomy became the "gold standard" in the treatment of cholelithiasis. The incidence of major biliary ductal injury ranges from 0.25% to 0.74%, and of minor injury from 0.28% to 1.7%. The cause of the injury is not always clearly identifiable. In more than half the cases, the injury occurs during maneuvers to isolate the cystic duct or to free the gallbladder from the common bile duct. These maneuvers may be more difficult and consequently more dangerous when there is significant inflammation as may be seen in acute cholecystitis, or in case of obesity, cirrhosis with portal hypertension, previous surgery with peritoneal adhesions, or anatomic variations of the hepatic pedicle. Pre-operative evaluation of clinical risk factors should be coupled with intra-operative caution and instrumental evaluation. The increase in frequency of iatrogenic biliary injuries can not be attributed simply to the inexperience of the surgeon or the learning curve as was initially suggested. Many injuries are due, rather, to the surgeon's failure to respect basic technical rules, long established for open cholecystectomy and which should not be modified for the laparoscopic technique. While routine cholangiography does not offer complete protection from iatrogenic ductal injuries, it is essential to visualize the biliary tract whenever a lesion of the ductal system is clearly identified or even suspected. In such cases, facility with the technique of intraoperative cholangiography and a knowledge of the radiological anatomy of the biliary tree are essential for an accurate and complete intraoperative evaluation of the biliary injury. Finally, in the presence of acute or chronic inflammation or other factors for technical difficulty (obesity, cirrhosis, previous surgery, anatomic variations, intraoperative bleeding), the surgeon must not hesitate to consider conversion to an open surgical approach. In such complicated cases, even the open approach is not a guarantee against biliary injury; there is no substitute for experience and caution in biliary surgery.
|Titolo tradotto del contributo||[Autom. eng. transl.] The risk of bile sores during laparoscopic cholecystectomy|
|Numero di pagine||11|
|Rivista||Journal de Chirurgie|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Pubblicato - 2004|
- Biliary injuries
- Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
- Risk of injury