Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a multiuse, multifunctional crop that provides raw material to a large numberof traditional and innovative industrial applications. A relatively simple, low input cultivation techniqueand the sustainability of its products are the main drivers for a future expansion of the hemp crop. InEurope, the large political support of bioenergy in recent years has fuelled numerous studies on thepotential cultivation of hemp for bioenergy production. In China the main drivers for a renewed interestin hemp are its traditional applications. For any given destination, the main target of hemp cultivation isthe maximization of biomass production, but each end-use destination has specific quality requirementsin terms of properties of the bast fibre, characteristics of the oil and proteins in the seeds, or profile ofsecondary metabolites in the inflorescence.In this paper, traditional and innovative end use destinations and cultivation systems for hemp areintroduced, together with some notes on hemp botany, biology, and resource use efficiency. This infor-mation, together with a review of the practical experience of hemp cultivation in Europe and China andknowledge gathered form scientific literature, highlights the effect of agronomic factors in determin-ing the yield potential and quality level of hemp for specific end use destinations. To conclude, futureperspectives and recommendations for hemp cultivation and research are discussed.