Bariatric surgery is very effective in achieving and maintaining weight loss but it is also associated with improvement of obesity metabolic complications, primarily type 2 diabetes (T2D). Remission of T2D or at least a net improvement of glycemic control persists for at least 5 years. The bypass of duodenum and of the first portion of the jejunum up to the Treitz ligament as in Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB), or the bypass of the duodenum, the entire jejunum and the first tract of the ileum, such as in Bilio-Pancreatic Diversion (BPD), achieve different results on insulin sensitivity. Insulin resistance is the major driver of T2D manifesting long before insulin secretion failure. In fact, T2D development can be prevented by treatment with insulin sensitizing agents. Interestingly, RYGB improves hepatic insulin sensitivity while BPD ameliorates whole-body insulin sensitivity. Two major theories have been advocated to explain the early remission of T2D following RYGB or BPD before a meaningful weight loss takes place, the foregut and the hindgut hypotheses. The former holds that the bypass of the proximal intestine, i.e. duodenum and jejunum, prevents the secretion of signals − including nervous transmitters and hormones − promoting insulin resistance, the latter instead states that the delivery of nutrients directly into the ileum stimulates the secretion of hormones improving glucose disposal. The most studied candidate is Glucagon Like Peptide 1 (GLP1). However, while there is unambiguous evidence that GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion, its direct action in lowering insulin resistance, independently of the effect on weight loss secondary to its satiety action, is utterly controversial. In this review we examine the effects on T2D and gastrointestinal peptide secretion produced by different types of metabolic surgery and by minimally invasive endoscopic surgery, whose utilization for the treatment of obesity and T2D is gaining wider interest and acceptance.
- Bariatric surgery
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Intestinal peptides
- Metabolic surgery
- Minimally invasive endoscopic surgery
- Type 2 diabetes