The proximity of the endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) transducer to the pancreas and the possibility to place needles or other accessories into a target located adjacent to the wall of the GI tract have encouraged researchers to develop various EUS-guided local treatments directed towards pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNENs). The use of pre-operative EUS-guided tattooing or fiducial marker placement to facilitate intraoperative tumor localization has proven effective in reducing operative time of laparoscopic surgeries. To reduce the mortality and morbidity rates of surgical resection, which is presently the mainstay treatment of PanNENs. EUS-guided loco-regional treatments, such as injection of alcohol and radiofrequency ablation have been proposed and results are hitherto promising. The present paper summarizes currently available data in the field of EUS-guided interventions to pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, as well as possible future applications.
- endoscopic ultrasound
- ethanol ablation
- pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
- radiofrequency ablation