Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between cytokine and neurotrophin expression and clinical findings, disease severity, and outcome of children with H1N1 influenza infection. METHODS: A prospective observational clinical study was performed on 15 children with H1N1 infection, 15 controls with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), and 15 non-infected children. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and neurotrophic factor (nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)) were measured using immunoenzymatic assays. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6, BDNF, and NGF were detected in patients with H1N1 infection compared to LRTI controls, while there was no significant variation in GDNF in the two groups. IL-1β, IL-6, BDNF, and NGF levels were significantly higher in H1N1 patients with more severe clinical manifestations compared to H1N1 patients with mild clinical manifestations. Of note, IL-6 was significantly correlated with the severity of respiratory compromise and fever, while NGF up-regulation was associated with the duration of cough. No correlation was found between interleukin and neurotrophic factor expression and outcome. CONCLUSIONS: H1N1 infection induces an early and significant IL-1β, IL-6, BDNF, and NGF up-regulation. The over-expression of these molecular markers is likely to play a neuroimmunomodulatory role in H1N1 infection and may contribute to airway inflammation and bronchial hyper-reactivity in infected children. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: Brain derived neurotrophic factor, Glial derived neurotrophic factor, H1N1 influenza, Interleukins, Nerve growth factor
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)e1186-e1193
RivistaInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2013


  • Interleukins


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