The surgical management of breast cancer has been undergoing continuous and profound changes over the last 40 years. The evolution from aggressive and mutilating treatment to conservative approach has been long but constant, despite the controversies arising every time a new procedure came to light. Today, the esthetic satisfaction of breast cancer patients coupled with oncological safety is the goal of the modern breast surgeon. Breast-conserving surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy is considered the gold standard approach for patients with early stage breast cancer and the recent introduction of "oncoplastic techniques" has furtherly increased the use of breast-conserving procedures. Mastectomy still remains a valid surgical alternative in selected cases and is usually associated with immediate reconstructive procedures. New surgical procedures called "conservative mastectomies" are emerging as techniques that combine oncological safety and esthetic outcome by entirely removing the breast parenchyma sparing the breast skin and nipple-areola complex. Staging of the axilla has also gradually evolved toward less aggressive approaches with the adoption of sentinel node biopsy and new therapeutic strategies are emerging in patients with a pathological positivity in sentinel lymph node biopsy. The present special article will highlight the new surgical treatment options, which are more and more effective and respectful of breast cancer patients.
|Numero di pagine||10|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Pubblicato - 2016|
- breast cancer treatment