When responding to a suddenly appearing stimulus, we are slower and/or less accurate when the stimulus occurs at the same location of a previous event than when it appears in a new location. This phenomenon, often referred to as inhibition of return (IOR), has fostered a huge amount of research in the last 20 years. In this selective review, which introduces a Special Issue of Cognitive Neuropsychology dedicated to IOR, we discuss some of the methods used for eliciting IOR and its boundary conditions. We also address its debated relationships with orienting of attention, succinctly review findings of altered IOR in normal elderly and neuropsychiatric patients, and present results concerning its possible neural bases. We conclude with an outline of the papers collected in this issue, which offer a more in-depth treatment of behavioural, neural, and theoretical issues related to IOR.