It has to be suspected that some environmentally hazardous substances have genotoxic properties, revealing their reproductive toxicity at a later stage only. Cancer, including childhood cancer, is more common than usually expected. Undesirable side effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation can be premature ovarian failure or even premature menopause. In cases of autoimmune disease, autoantibodies can directly affect maturation of oocytes in the follicle, fertilization, and implantation. Spontaneous abortions are more common in patients with autoimmune disease. Thrombophilia is known to display a higher rate of spontaneous abortions as well as pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation. Infections are a common threat to pregnancy. Metabolic syndrome is increasingly frequent in western countries and often associated with hyperandrogenemia and polycystic disease. Women with inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis usually have no problems conceiving. In conclusion, even though infertility is a multifactorial disease, various medical and non-medical conditions can be attributed to it.
|Rivista||International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics|
|Volume||123 Suppl 2|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Pubblicato - 2013|
- Crohn disease