Activation of fractalkine and other chemokines plays an important role in atherogenesis and, in conjunction with endothelial dysfunction, promotes premature vascular damage in obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that increased circulating fractalkine coexists with impaired vasomotor function in metabolically healthy or unhealthy obesity, and that treatment with antidiabetic drugs may impact these abnormalities in type 2 diabetes. Compared to lean subjects, in both obese groups the vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were impaired (both P < .001); ETA-receptor blockade resulted in greater vasodilation (both P < .001); and plasma levels of fractalkine, E-selectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were increased (all P < .05). In diabetic patients, oral antidiabetic drugs (glyburide, metformin or pioglitazone) reduced circulating levels fractalkine and E-selectin (both P < .05), without affecting vascular responses (all P > .05). Our findings indicate that insulin resistant states are associated with elevated atherogenic chemokines and impaired vascular reactivity. Antidiabetic treatment results in lower circulating fractalkine, which may provide cardiovascular benefits.