Impact of resistance mutations on efficacy of dolutegravir plus rilpivirine or plus lamivudine as maintenance regimens: a cohort study

Roberta Gagliardini, Michela Baccini, Sara Modica, Francesca Montagnani, Giacomo Zanelli, Alberto Borghetti, Emanuela Dreassi, Francesca Lombardi, Monica Pecorari, Vanni Borghi, Annapaola Callegaro, Valeria Micheli, Marco Annovazzi Lodi, Barbara Rossetti, Maurizio Zazzi

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista


Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of resistance mutations on efficacy of dolutegravir-based two-drug regimens (2DR). Methods: Virologically suppressed patients with HIV-1 switching to dolutegravir + lamivudine or rilpivirine or to a dolutegravir-based three-drug regimen (3DR) with pre-baseline genotype were selected. Virological failure (VF) was defined as one HIV-RNA viral load (VL) > 200 cps/mL or two consecutive VL > 50 cps/mL; treatment failure (TF) was defined as VF or treatment discontinuation (TD). Resistance was defined as at least low-level resistance to at least one drug of the current regimen. Propensity score matching was used to conduct adjusted analyses within a competing risks framework. Results: A total of 971 dolutegravir-based regimens were selected: 339 (34.9%) 2DR and 632 (65.1%) 3DR. The adjusted cumulative 48-week incidence of VF was 4.2% (90% CI 3.1%-5.3%) with 2DR and 4.7% (90% CI 3.5%-5.8%) with 3DR. The cumulative 48-week incidence of TF was 15.8% (90% CI 13.9%-17.9%) with 2DR and 24.5% (90% CI 22.2%-27.0%) with 3DR. For VF, the estimated hazard ratio (HR) for 2DR vs. 3DR was 1.02 (90% CI: 0.78-1.34), with evidence of effect modification by low-level resistance (HR 3.96, 90% CI: 2.10-7.46). The estimated HR of TF for 2DR vs. 3DR was 0.54 (90% CI: 0.4 8-0.60). The 4 8-week cumulative incidence of TD was 11.7% (8.7%, 14.6%) in 2DR and 19.6% (16.9%, 22.4%) in 3DR. Conclusions: Dolutegravir-based 2DR showed high virological efficacy and durability; however, past resistance increased the risk of VF, but not of TD or TF. (c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( )
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)274-281
Numero di pagine8
RivistaJournal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2022


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • Cohort Studies
  • Dolutegravir
  • Dual regimens
  • HIV Infections
  • HIV-1
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring
  • Humans
  • Lamivudine
  • Mutation
  • Oxazines
  • Piperazines
  • Pyridones
  • Resistance-associated mutations
  • Rilpivirine


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