Hyperchloremia and acute kidney injury: a retrospective observational cohort study on a general mixed medical-surgical not ICU-hospitalized population

Gianmarco Lombardi, Pietro Manuel Ferraro*, Matteo Bargagli, Alessandro Naticchia, Silvia D'Alonzo, Giovanni Gambaro

*Autore corrispondente per questo lavoro

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista

3 Citazioni (Scopus)


The aim of this observational retrospective cohort study was to analyze the association between hyperchloremia and serum chloride variation with in-hospital acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality in a general, no-ICU hospitalized population. We performed a retrospective study on inpatient population admitted to Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS between January 2010 and December 2014 with inclusion of adult patients with at least two values available for chloride, sodium and creatinine. Hyperchloremia was defined as serum chloride concentration ≥ 108 mmol/L (moderate hyperchloremia: chloremia between 108–110 mmol/L, severe hyperchloremia: chloremia > 110 mmol/L). According to the time of onset of the electrolyte disturbance, hyperchloremia was then classified as hospital acquired (HA) and community acquired (CA). In patients with HA-hyperchloremia, chloride variation (ΔCl) was calculated. In-hospital AKI was defined according to creatinine kinetics criteria occurring 48 h after hospital admission. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between the exposures of interest and in-hospital AKI and mortality. A total of 24,912 hospital admissions met the inclusion criteria. Regression analyses showed that only severe HA-hyperchloremia was associated with increased risk of in-hospital AKI [odds ratio (OR) 2.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.58, 4.30, p value < 0.001] and death (OR 3.89, 95% CI 2.11, 7.18, p value < 0.001). With increasing ΔCl, the OR of in-hospital AKI increased progressively (p value for trend = 0.005). In conclusion, severe hyperchloremia is an independent predictor for in-hospital AKI and mortality; HA-hyperchloremia is more detrimental for patient outcome; higher ΔCl from hospital admission is associated with increased risk of AKI.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)273-280-280
RivistaInternal and Emergency Medicine
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2019


  • Acute kidney injury
  • Electrolyte disturbance
  • Hyperchloremia
  • Mortality
  • Retrospective study


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