Hybrid Robotics for Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery: Preclinical Evaluation and Surgeon First Impression

Francesca Zappa, Davide Mattavelli, Alba Madoglio, Vittorio Rampinelli, Marco Ferrari, Fabio Tampalini, Marco Fontanella, Marco Maria Fontanella, Piero Nicolai, Francesco Doglietto*, Edoardo Agosti, Paolo Battaglia, Antonio Biroli, Damien Bresson, Paolo Castelnuovo, Alessandro Fiorindi, Philippe Herman, Apostolos Karligkiotis, Davide Locatelli, Fabio PozziGiorgio Saraceno, Alberto Schreiber, Benjamin Verillaud, Mario Turri Zanoni

*Autore corrispondente per questo lavoro

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista


Background: A robotic endoscope holder should theoretically provide various advantages in transnasal endoscopic skull base surgery, but only recently has a robotic system become commercially available. The objective of this study was to provide a preclinical evaluation of potential advantages and surgeon first impression of this robotic hybrid solution. Methods: Thirty skull base surgeons, attending the Joint European Diploma of Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery 2018–2019 in Paris, France, were enrolled. A questionnaire, mainly concerning personal surgical experience and habits, was administered. The test phase consisted of 2 different dry-lab tasks, performed with and without EndoscopeRobot, according to randomization and on 2 different days. A modified NASA Task Load Index test was subsequently administered via e-mail to all participants. Completion times and modified Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills in Endoscopy scores of the videotaped tasks were recorded. Results: Nineteen otorhinolaryngologic surgeons and 11 neurosurgeons, with different surgical habits and endoscopic experience, were enrolled. No one appeared unfavorable a priori to robotic endoscopic surgery. Although the robot did not provide an advantage in the simple grasping task 1, a trend toward better completion times and efficacy was evident in the bimanual task 2, when performed with the robot and bimanually. According to the modified NASA Task Load Index test, surgeons felt more successful with the robot in task 2, finding it less stressful and mentally demanding. Conclusions: Endoscopic skull base surgeons seem to view a hybrid robotic solution positively. EndoscopeRobot seems to provide a benefit to the single surgeon with experience in bimanual endoscopic surgery. Further preclinical and clinical evaluation of this technology is necessary.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)572-580
Numero di pagine9
RivistaWorld Neurosurgery
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2020


  • Endoscope holder
  • Endoscopy
  • Transsphenoidal
  • Robotics
  • Skull base surgery
  • Preclinical


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