Purpose: Primary hypophysitis is a rare disease, with an autoimmune aetiology. As few papers have investigated genetic of hypophysitis, our aim was to evaluate HLA status in a single-centre series of patients.
Patients and method: A retrospective, longitudinal and cross-sectional study was conducted. In consecutive Caucasian patients, clinically or histologically diagnosed for primary autoimmune hypophysitis (PAH), the HLA genotype having been determined. This cohort was compared with a control group. Anti-pituitary and anti-hypothalamus auto-antibodies evaluation was included.
Results: 16 patients were enrolled. Fourteen patients were female (87.5%). According to HLA-DR status, we found the following: 9 of 16 patients (56.3%) haplotypes that were associated with coeliac disease (CD). Among these, 5 carried the DR7-DQ2 heterozygote haplotype (55.5%) while the remaining ones only the following haplotypes: DR3-DQ2 homozygote (25%), DR4-DQ2 heterozygote (25%), DR4-DQ8 heterozygote (50%) and DR4-DQ8 homozygote (25%), respectively. A total of 12 CD-associated haplotypes were identified. In PAH, we found a significantly higher frequency of patients carrying CD-associated HLA haplotypes as compared to the control group (respectively, 75% vs 48% P=.03; OR: 3.25 95%IC:1.1-10.3), particularly, for DQ2 and DQ8 haplotypes. DQ2 haplotype was detected in 50% of PAH and 38.4% of the control group (P=.3), while DQ8 haplotype in 25% of PAH and 7.2% of the control group (P=.01 OR:4.3 95%IC:1.3-14.7).
Conclusion: Our data suggest that PAH and CD share some HLA haplotypes, reinforcing the knowledge of their association. HLA haplotypes, particularly DQ8, may play a role in PAH management and diagnosis, also suggesting the predisposition to other autoimmune diseases.
- coeliac disease
- human leucocyte antigens