Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of the human amniotic membrane plug for recurrent high myopic macular hole (MH) that already underwent pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling and gas endotamponade. Methods: Sixteen eyes of 16 patients with recurrent high myopic MH were enrolled. A 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed. Human amniotic membrane plugs were implanted under the neuroretina inside the MH. Twenty percent sulfur hexafluoride or air was used as endotamponades. The patients were instructed to maintain facedown position for 5 days after surgery. Results: Optical coherence tomography examinations showed that the MHs closed in 15 of the 16 patients (93.75%) 2 weeks after one surgical intervention, and in 100% of patients after second intervention. Mean best-corrected visual acuity improved from 1 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (20/200) to 0.67 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (20/100) 6 months after surgery. Best-corrected visual acuity remained stable during the 12-month follow-up. One patient had human amniotic membrane plug dislocation after gas absorption that needed a second intervention with new AM plug implantation. No adverse events were reported during the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: The first case series of recurrent high myopic MH was reported, assessing the effectiveness of the human amniotic membrane plug to close recurrent MHs in pathologic myopia. All the cases were successful with encouraging best-corrected visual acuity recovery.
- human amniotic membrane
- pathologic myopia
- recurrent high myopic macular hole