Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that is associated with demyelination and neuronal loss. Over recent years, the immunological and neuronal effects of tryptophan (Trp) metabolites have been largely investigated, leading to the hypothesis that these compounds and the related enzymes are possibly involved in the pathophysiology of MS. Specifically, the kynurenine pathway of Trp metabolism is responsible for the synthesis of intermediate products with potential immunological and neuronal effects. More recently, Trp metabolites, originating also from the host microbiome, have been identified in MS, and it has been shown that they are differently regulated in MS patients. Here, we sought to discuss whether, in MS patients, a specific urinary signature of host/microbiome Trp metabolism can be potentially identified so as to select novel biomarkers and guide toward the identification of specific metabolic pathways as drug targets in MS.
- indole-3-propionic acid
- multiple sclerosis