Detailed data on cellular immune response to influenza vaccination in HIV-infected patients are lacking. We analyzed cellular (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF) and humoral (IgG and IgM) immune response in 81 HIV-infected and 30 HIV-negative subjects, before (T0) and 4 weeks (T1) after receiving a single dose of trivalent MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine. No difference in humoral response (IgG or IgM) was demonstrated between the two groups. While an increase in most cytokines from T0 to T1 was observed in HIV-uninfected subjects, cytokines production did not significantly increased in HIV-infected patients. Exploring Th1 response, higher CD8 cells count was significantly associated with lower post-vaccination IFNγ levels, while a higher CD4 cells count was associated with a greater response. Exploring Th2 response, higher HIV viral load was significantly associated with reduced post-vaccination IL-10 levels. In conclusion, in HIV-infected patients influenza vaccination could have good efficacy in sustaining humoral response but cellular response appeared impaired.
- Cellular immune response
- Humoral immune response