Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to a wide picture of liver damage, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. The epidemiological studies demonstrated an association of NAFLD with obesity, type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Under this light the metabolic syndrome (MS), including NAFLD, obesity, central fat distribution, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) can be considered the link to explain the presence of vascular diseases in patients with NAFLD. In NHANES III, the authors demonstrated that the presence of MS was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke or both. In a prospective study on 1209 Finnish middle-aged men without CVD or diabetes at baseline, Lakka showed that MS per se is associated with an increased risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. Finally the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) confirmed that subjects with MS were 2 times more likely to have prevalent coronary heart disease. From a pathophysiological point of view, growing evidences implicate the oxidative stress as the unifying mechanism for many CVD risk factors. Under this light there is emerging evidence suggesting that there is a significant increase in vascular oxidative stress in patients with MS, with the presence of endothelial dysfunction in the early stage of the syndrome. Indeed, the inflammation process evidentiated in these patients is initiated at the endothelial level, stressing the key role of this active and dynamic tissue in the pathophysiological pathways. Under this light the endothelium can be considered as the last effector of a multi-syndrome and the main target of all the future studies focused on the underlying mechamisms of this complex network. Because of the potential serious public health impact, the comprehension of these patophysiological pathways will be crucial to design new preventive measures and therapeutic strategies.