Pregnancy is characterized by maternal adaptations that are necessary to create a welcoming and hospitable environment for the fetus. Studies have highlighted how the microbiota modulates several networks in humans through complex molecular interactions and how dysbiosis (defined as quantitative and qualitative alterations of the microbiota communities) is related to human pathologies including gynecological diseases. This review analyzed how maternal uterine, vaginal, and gut microbiomes could impact on fetus health during the gestational period. We evaluated the role of a dysbiotic microbiota in preterm birth, chorioamnionitis, gestational diabetes mellitus and pre-eclampsia. For many years it has been hypothesized that newborns were sterile organisms but in the past few years this paradigm has been questioned through the demonstration of the presence of microbes in the placenta and meconium. In the future, we should go deeper into the concept of in utero colonization to better understand the role of microbiota through the phases of pregnancy. Numerous studies in the literature have already showed interesting results regarding the role of microbiota in pregnancy. This evidence gives us the hope that microbiota modulation could be a novel strategy to reduce the morbidity and mortality related to pregnancy complications in the future.
- Endometrial microbiota
- Gestational diabetes mellitus
- Placental microbiota
- Preterm birth
- Vaginal microbiota