The HTA is a multidisciplinary approach which is increasingly applied worldwide in order to support decision-makers in the introduction of health technologies. The application of HTA to vaccines is quite recent and linked to the increasing number of vaccines available or in development, especially to those intended to non pediatric immunization. In this article a description of the HTA approach used in the evaluation of the bivalent HPV vaccine in Italy is provided; moreover the reasons for keeping HTA process "alive" and identifying new or pending Public Health issues are discussed. In fact, the project raised questions and challenges about the standardization and sharing of HTA methods in Italy. Recently the need of updating the results is starting to be seen as urgent due to the evolution of scientific knowledge, the availability of the first results after technology introduction and the observed differences in vaccination strategies among Italian regions. Moreover in these last two years after the completion of the HTA project a number of new issues have risen in the Italian context as immunization rates, regional vaccination strategies, processes for vaccine selection and health economic issues.