Granulocyte transfusions (GTs) are seldom used as a life-saving therapy for neutropenic patients with severe infections. Despite compelling evidence of GT efficacy in retrospective and prospective case series, no study has been successful in demonstrating a definite advantage for recipients in controlled clinical trials. This review critically revises some aspects emerging from past experience that might have weakened the evidence of GT benefits. Some specific issues relevant to the efficacy of this therapeutic approach, such as primary infection, delivered doses and schedules, and immunologic effects of GTs, are discussed. Importantly, the awareness of biologic effects accompanying the transfusion of neutrophils might support their use at standardized doses and may definitely convey significant advantages to the recipient patients.
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