Gli1 and axin2 are distinctive markers of human calvarial mesenchymal stromal cells in nonsyndromic craniosynostosis

Lorena Di Pietro, Sabrina Ceccariglia, Luca Massimi, Gianpiero Tamburrini, Ornella Parolini, Wanda Lattanzi, Marta Barba, Chiara Prampolini, Paolo Frassanito, Davide Bonvissuto

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivistapeer review

4 Citazioni (Scopus)


All skeletal bones house osteogenic stem cell niches, in which mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) provide progenitors for tissue growth and regeneration. They have been widely studied in long bones formed through endochondral ossification. Limited information is available on the composition of the osteogenic niche in flat bones (i.e., skull vault bones) that develop through direct membranous ossification. Craniosynostosis (CS) is a congenital craniofacial defect due to the excessive and premature ossification of skull vault sutures. This study aimed at analysing the expression of GLI1, AXIN2 and THY1 in the context of the human skull vault, using nonsyndromic forms of CS (NCS) as a model to test their functional implication in the aberrant osteogenic process. The expression of selected markers was studied in NCS patients’ calvarial bone specimens, to assess the in vivo location of cells, and in MSC isolated thereof. The marker expression profile was analysed during in vitro osteogenic differentiation to validate the functional implication. Our results show that GLI1 and AXIN2 are expressed in periosteal and endosteal locations within the osteogenic niche of human calvarial bones. Their expression is higher in MSC isolated from calvarial bones than in those isolated from long bones and tends to decrease upon osteogenic commitment and differentiation. In particular, AXIN2 expression was lower in cells isolated from prematurely fused sutures than in those derived from patent sutures of NCS patients. This suggests that AXIN2 could reasonably represent a marker for the stem cell population that undergoes depletion during the premature ossification process occurring in CS.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)1-19
Numero di pagine19
RivistaInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2020


  • AXIN2
  • Axin Protein
  • Biomarkers
  • Bone development
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cranial suture
  • Craniosynostoses
  • Down-Regulation
  • Female
  • GLI1
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells
  • Nonsyndromic craniosynostosis
  • Osteogenesis
  • Personalised medicine
  • Primary Cell Culture
  • Regenerative medicine
  • Skull
  • Stem Cell Niche
  • Stem cell niche
  • Zinc Finger Protein GLI1


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