Frailty Assessment in the Emergency Department for Risk Stratification of COVID-19 Patients Aged ≥80 Years

Marcello Covino*, Andrea Russo, Sara Salini, Giuseppe De Matteis, Benedetta Simeoni, Davide Della Polla, Claudio Sandroni, Francesco Landi, Antonio Gasbarrini, Francesco Franceschi

*Autore corrispondente per questo lavoro

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista


Objectives: To evaluate, in a cohort of adults aged ≥80 years, the overlapping effect of clinical severity, comorbidities, cognitive impairment, and frailty, for the in-hospital death risk stratification of COVID-19 older patients since emergency department (ED) admission. Design: Single-center prospective observational cohort study. Setting and Participants: The study was conducted in the ED of a teaching hospital that is a referral center for COVID-19 in central Italy. We enrolled all patients with aged ≥80 years old consecutively admitted to the ED between April 2020 and March 2021. Methods: Clinical variables assessed in the ED were evaluated for the association with all-cause in-hospital death. Evaluated parameters were severity of disease, frailty, comorbidities, cognitive impairment, delirium, and dependency in daily life activities. Cox regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for poor outcomes. Results: A total of 729 patients aged ≥80 years were enrolled [median age 85 years (interquartile range 82-89); 346 were males (47.3%)]. According to the Clinical Frailty Scale, 61 (8.4%) were classified as fit, 417 (57.2%) as vulnerable, and 251 (34.4%) as frail. Severe disease [hazard ratio (HR) 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-2.59], ≥3 comorbidities (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.11-2.13), male sex (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.14-1.87), and frailty (HR 6.93, 95% CI 1.69-28.27) for vulnerable and an overall HR of 12.55 (95% CI 2.96-53.21) for frail were independent risk factors for in-hospital death. Conclusions and Implications: The ED approach to older patients with COVID-19 should take into account the functional and clinical characteristics of patients being admitted. A sole evaluation based on the clinical severity and the presence of comorbidities does not reflect the complexity of this population. A comprehensive evaluation based on clinical severity, multimorbidity, and frailty could effectively predict the clinical risk of in-hospital death for patients with COVID-19 aged ≥80 years at the time of ED presentation.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)1845-1852.e1
Numero di pagine8
RivistaJournal of the American Medical Directors Association
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2021


  • Adult
  • Aged
  • COVID-19
  • Clinical Frailty Scale
  • Emergency Service, Hospital
  • Frail Elderly
  • Frailty
  • Geriatric Assessment
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • dementia
  • multimorbidity
  • older adults


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