Background: The aim of this research was to study the epidemiology, microbiology, prophylaxis, and antibiotic therapy of surgical site infections (SSIs), especially those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and identify the risk factors for these infections. In Italy SSIs occur in about 5% of all surgical procedures. They are predominantly caused by staphylococci, and 30% of them are diagnosed after discharge. In every surgical specialty there are specific procedures more associated with SSIs. Methods: The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature on SSIs, especially MRSA infections, and used the Delphi method to identify risk factors for these resistant infections. Results: Risk factors associated with MRSA SSIs identified by the Delphi method were: patients from long-term care facilities, recent hospitalization (within the preceding 30days), Charlson score > 5 points, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and thoracic surgery, antibiotic therapy with beta-lactams (especially cephalosporins and carbapenem) and/or quinolones in the preceding 30days, age 75years or older, current duration of hospitalization >16days, and surgery with prothesis implantation. Protective factors were adequate antibiotic prophylaxis, laparoscopic surgery and the presence of an active, in-hospital surveillance program for the control of infections. MRSA therapy, especially with agents that enable the patient's rapid discharge from hospital is described. Conclusion: The prevention, identification and treatment of SSIs, especially those caused by MRSA, should be implemented in surgical units in order to improve clinical and economic outcomes.
- Emergency Medicine
- Surgical site infection