Abstract Background: Nocturnal enuresis (NE) is a very common pediatric disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of patients with NE or urinary incontinence (UI) during a period of 5 years to increase the knowledge on these conditions and optimize their diagnosis and treatment. Methods: We enrolled 278 children with NE or UI referred to the pediatric nephrology ambulatory, 'A. Gemelli' University Hospital of Rome, from December 2006 to December 2011. Results: We observed that heredity, parasomnias, left-handedness, polythelia and constipation are correlated to NE and UI. Conclusions: We wanted to clarify the definition of NE and UI and describe our experience on the main characteristics of these conditions by referring to the latest knowledge reported in the literature.