Liver disease and gut dysbiosis are strictly associated, and the pathophysiology of this bidirectional relationship has recently been the subject of several investigations. Growing evidence highlights the link between gut microbiota composition, impairment of the gut-liver axis, and the development or progression of liver disease. Therefore, the modulation of gut microbiota to maintain homeostasis of the gut-liver axis could represent a potential instrument to halt liver damage, modify the course of liver disease, and improve clinical outcomes. Among all the methods available to achieve this purpose, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is one of the most promising, being able to directly reshape the recipient’s gut microbial communities. In this review, we report the main characteristics of gut dysbiosis and its pathogenetic consequences in cirrhotic patients, discussing the emerging data on the application of FMT for liver disease in different clinical settings.
- Fecal microbiota transplantation
- Gut microbiota
- Gut-liver axis
- Liver disease