Familial Melanoma: Diagnostic and Management Implications

Lucia Di Nardo, Mariarita Rossi, Cristina Pellegrini, Ludovica Cardelli, Valeria Ciciarelli, Maria Concetta Fargnoli

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista

Abstract

Background: An estimated 5%-10% of all cutaneous melanoma cases occur in families. This review describes susceptibility genes currently known to be involved in melanoma predisposition, genetic testing of familial melanoma patients, and management implications.Results: CDKN2A is the major high-penetrance susceptibility gene with germline mutations identified in 20%-40% of melanoma families. A positive CDKN2A mutation status has been associated with a high number of affected family members, multiple primary melanomas, pancreatic cancer, and early age at melanoma onset. Mutations in the other melanoma predisposition genes-CDK4, BAP1, TERT, POT1, ACD, TERF2IP, and MITF-are rare, overall contributing to explain a further 10% of familial clustering of melanoma. The underlying genetic susceptibility remains indeed unexplained for half of melanoma families. Genetic testing for melanoma is currently recommended only for CDKN2A and CDK4, and, at this time, the role of multigene panel testing remains under debate. Individuals from melanoma families must receive genetic counseling to be informed about the inclusion criteria for genetic testing, the probability of an inconclusive result, the genetic risk for melanoma and other cancers, and the debatable role of medical management. They should be counseled focusing primarily on recommendations on appropriate lifestyle, encouraging skin self-examination, and regular dermatological screening.Conclusions: Genetic testing for high-penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes is recommended in melanoma families after selection of the appropriate candidates and adequate counseling of the patient. All patients and relatives from melanoma kindreds, irrespective of their mutation status, should be encouraged to adhere to a correct ultraviolet exposure, skin self-examination, and surveillance by physicians.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)10-16-16
RivistaDERMATOLOGY PRACTICAL & CONCEPTUAL
Volume9
DOI
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2019

Keywords

  • CDK4
  • CDKN2A
  • cancer screening
  • familial melanoma
  • genetic counseling
  • genetic testing

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