Llama sausage is still produced following artisanal procedures, with the autochthonous microbiota being mainly responsible for the fermentation process. In this work, the taxonomical identification and technological-safety criteria of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from two dierent productions of llama sausages (P: pilot and A: artisanal) were investigated. Staphylococcus (S) equorum and S. saprophyticus were the species most frequently found in P production, followed by S. succinis and S. warneri; a wider species variability was observed in A factory being S. equorum, S. capitis, S. xylosus, S. pasteuri, S. epidermidis and S. saprophyticus as the main identified species. The technological characterization of 28 CNS strains showed their ability to hydrolyze gelatin and tributyrin together with a relevant nitrate reductase activity. Phenotypic and genotypic approaches were conducted to investigate the main safety traits. Llama’s CNS strains exhibited weak decarboxylase and hemolytic activity and low biofilm production; additionally, no enterotoxin genes were detected. Correlation analysis between phenotypic and genotypic data showed low values for the biofilm parameters, while high correlation was observed for oxacillin, ampicillin, tetracycline and aminoglycosides resistance and their genetic determinants. Data obtained may contribute to broaden knowledge about the autochthonous strains of this poorly studied fermented product, thus helping to select an appropriate combination of potential starter cultures to improve llama sausage safety and quality.
- coagulase-negative staphylococci
- fermented sausages
- llama meat
- safety traits
- starter cultures