PURPOSE: To determine whether the mini-invasive surgery still play a role in the diagnostic workup and in the management of the couples affected by unexplained infertility. METHODS: 170 infertile women (age range 25-38 years) with documented normal ovarian, tubal and uterine function underwent combined hysteroscopic and laparoscopic surgery; 100 women refused surgery or ART treatment (control group) choosing expectant management. A retrospective assessment questionnaire was proposed to enrolled women to collect the rate of spontaneous or ART-induced pregnancies. RESULTS: The combined surgery revealed pelvic pathologies in 49.4% of patients, confirming the diagnosis of unexplained infertility only in 86 of studied patients. In this group of 86 selected women, 28 of them achieved a spontaneous pregnancy and 23 women obtained pregnancy after ART. The Chi-square analysis shows that the pregnancy rate was not influenced by the employment of ART. In the group of 100 control women, only 14 (14%) achieved a spontaneous pregnancy after 18 months of expectant management. CONCLUSIONS: Combined laparoscopy and hysteroscopy in women with unexplained infertility may reveal previously undiagnosed pathologies that could require ART, and in those without abnormal surgical finding, ART does not improve pregnancy rate.