A number of metabolic disorders, including hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, elevated fasting glucose and diabetes mellitus, were reported in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Less frequently, coagulative disorders were described in patients receiving HAART. Since all these metabolic disorders may predispose to coronary heart disease, an early evaluation and treatment is advisable. Existing guidelines for uninfected patients may be applied, taking into account, however, the potential for drug interactions and accumulated toxicity. It may be helpful to stratify all patients in three risk groups to plan regular diagnostic screening. Treatment of dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus should include a first-line approach with non-pharmacological interventions. Statins and fibrates are proposed for HIV-infected patients with HAART-related hyperlipidemia, but concern has been raised on their potential for interaction with antiretrovirals and hepatic and muscle toxicity. Metformin and thiazolidenediones (or glitazones), hypoglycemic agents that increase insulin sensitivity, are presently under evaluation in diabetic and glucose-intolerant HIV-infected patients treated with HAART. Glitazones also have a potential for ameliorating the lipodystrophic syndrome. The routine evaluation of coagulative parameters is probably not advisable until a benefit of widespread screening is assessed in prospective studies. A heightened awareness of the possiblity of coagulative disorders, together with controlled trials and basic research, is needed.
|Numero di pagine||8|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Pubblicato - 2003|