Ethical evaluation of risks related to living donor transplantation programs

Nicola Panocchia, Maurizio Bossola, Patrizia Silvestri, Emanuela Midolo, Adele Anna Teleman, Luigi Tazza, Dario Sacchini, Roberta Minacori, Maria Luisa Di Pietro, Antonio Gioacchino Spagnolo

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista

8 Citazioni (Scopus)


The shortage of available cadaveric organs for transplantation and the growing demand has incresed live donation. To increase the number of transplantations from living donors, programs have been implemented to coordinate donations in direct or indirect form (cross-over, paired, and domino chain). Living donors with complex medical conditions are accepted by several transplantation programs. In this way, the number of transplants from living has exceeded that from cadaver donors in several European countries. No mortality has been reported in the case of lung, pancreas, or intestinal Living donations, but the perioperative complications range from 15% to 30% for pancreas and lung donors. In living kidney donors, the perioperative mortality is 3 per 10,000. Their frequency of end-stage renal disease does not exceed the United States rate for the general population. However, long-term follow-up studies of living donors for kidney transplantations have several limitations. The frequency of complications in live donor liver transplantation is 40%, of these, 48% are possibly life-threatening according to the Clavien classification. Residual disability, liver failure, or death has occurred in 1% of cases. The changes in live donor acceptance criteria raise ethical issues, in particular, the physician's role in evaluating and accepting the risks taken by the living donor. Some workers argue to set aside medical paternalism on behalf of the principle of donor autonomy. In this way the medical rule "primum non nocere" is overcome. Transplantation centers should reason beyond the shortage of organs and think in terms of the care for both donor and recipient.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)2601-2603
Numero di pagine3
RivistaTransplantation Proceedings
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2013


  • Ethics
  • Humans
  • Living Donors
  • Risk Assessment


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