Gallstones are a very common problem in developed countries
[1 – 3]. Most patients with gallstones remain asymptomatic
throughout their lifetime [4, 5], but 10%– 25% of them may develop
biliary pain or complications [6 – 9], with an annual risk of
about 2%– 3% for symptomatic disease  and 1%–2% for
major complications . The development of symptomatic
disease and complications is mostly related to the migration of
stones into the common bile duct (CBD). Common bile duct
stones (CBDSs) may be treated by endoscopic retrograde
cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or surgically during cholecystectomy.
The aim of this evidence- and consensus-based
Guideline, commissioned by the European Society of Gastrointestinal
Endoscopy (ESGE), is to provide practical advice on
how to manage patients with CBDSs. It considers diagnostic
strategies in patients with suspected CBDSs, as well as the different
therapeutic options available for CBDSs.