In recent years, extended scientific works shed light on the important role played by the endometrium in early pregnancy. This review examines our current knowledge about the delicate balance between microbial and cellular immune agents at endometrial level: All of them might affect endometrial receptivity. In contrast to the classical thinking of human endometrium as a sterile tissue, several recent studies have drawn attention to a resident population of microorganisms, which reaches only a 30% of concordance with those of the cervical‐vaginal flora. At present, the understanding of the microbiome in relation to human reproduction is in its infancy and further studies are needed to clarify the activity of endometrial microbiome and the possible effects of a “reproductive tract dysbiosis” on fertility. Moreover, in the human endometrium, there is a complex system works preventing the risk of infection as well as enabling, when pregnancy occurs, the acceptance of the blastocyst. In this way, the endometrium plays a central role in the uterine immune surveillance. A better understanding of the different agents that may affect endometrial receptivity would improve the diagnosis and treatment of obstetric complications related to defective implantation and placentation.
- endometrium, infertility, miscarriage, microbiota
- microbiome, inflammation