Dystonia and levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) are both hyperkinetic movement disorders. Dystonia arises most often spontaneously, although it may be seen after stroke, injury, or as a result of genetic causes. LID is associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), emerging as a consequence of chronic therapy with levodopa, and may be either dystonic or choreiform. LID and dystonia share important phenomenological properties and mechanisms. Both LID and dystonia are generated by an integrated circuit involving the cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. They also share dysregulation of striatal cholinergic signaling and abnormalities of striatal synaptic plasticity. The long duration nature of both LID and dystonia suggests that there may be underlying epigenetic dysregulation as a proximate cause. While both may improve after interventions such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), neither currently has a satisfactory medical therapy, and many people are disabled by the symptoms of dystonia and LID. Further study of the fundamental mechanisms connecting these two disorders may lead to novel approaches to treatment or prevention.
- Basal ganglia