Gastric bypass surgery can dramatically improve type 2 diabetes. It has been hypothesized that by excluding duodenum and jejunum from nutrient transit this procedure may reduce putative signals from the proximal intestine which negatively influence insulin sensitivity. To test this hypothesis, resection or bypass of different intestinal segments were performed in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and Wistar rats. Rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups: duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB), jejunal resection (jejunectomy), ileal resection (ileectomy), pair-fed sham-operated, and non-operated controls. Oral glucose-tolerance test was performed within 2 weeks after surgery. Baseline and post-stimulation levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic-polypeptide (GIP) were measured. Minimal-model analysis was used to assess insulin sensitivity (SI). Insulin sensitivity improved after DJB (SI = 1.14±0.32×10(-4) min(-1)⋅pM(-1)) and jejunectomy (SI =0.80±0.14×10(-4) min(-1)⋅pM(-1)), but not after ileectomy or sham operation/pair-feeding in diabetic rats. Both DJB and jejunal resection normalized insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats as shown by SI levels equivalent to those of Wistar rats (SI=1.01003F0.06003F10(-4) min(-1)⋅pM(-1), P=NS). Glucose effectiveness did not change after operations in any group. While ileectomy increased plasma GIP levels, no changes in GIP or GLP-1 were observed after DJB and jejunectomy. These findings support the hypothesis that anatomic alterations of the proximal small bowel may reduce factor/s with negative influence on insulin sensitivity therefore contributing to the control of diabetes after gastric bypass surgery.