Dual role of brain-derived extracellular vesicles in dementia-related neurodegenerative disorders: cargo of disease spreading signals and diagnostic-therapeutic molecules

Francesca Natale, Salvatore Fusco*, Claudio Grassi

*Autore corrispondente per questo lavoro

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista

Abstract

Neurodegenerative disorders are one of the most common causes of disability and represent 6.3% of the global burden of disease. Among them, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases cause cognitive decline, representing the most disabling symptom on both personal and social levels. The molecular mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of dementia are still poorly understood, and include secretory factors potentially affecting differentiated neurons, glial cells and neural stem cell niche. In the last decade, much attention has been devoted to exosomes as novel carriers of information exchanged among both neighbouring and distant cells. These vesicles can be generated and internalized by different brain cells including neurons, neural stem cells, astrocytes, and microglia, thereby affecting neural plasticity and cognitive functions in physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we review data on the roles of exosomes as carriers of bioactive molecules potentially involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders and detectable in biological fluids as biomarkers of dementia. We also discuss the experimental evidence of the therapeutic potential of stem cell-derived vesicles in experimental models of neurodegeneration-dependent cognitive decline.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)N/A-N/A
Numero di pagine17
RivistaTranslational Neurodegeneration
Volume11
DOI
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2022

Keywords

  • Biomarkers
  • Cognitive decline
  • Extracellular vesicles
  • Neurodegenerative diseases
  • Stem cells

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