Background: To measure daily sodium intake in patients on chronic hemodialysis and to compare the intake of nutrients, minerals, trace elements, and vitamins in patients who had a daily sodium intake below or above the value of 1500 mg recommended by the American Heart Association. Methods: Dietary intake was recorded for 3 days by means of 3-day diet diaries in prevalent patients on chronic hemodialysis. Each patient was instructed by a dietitian on how to fill the diary, which was subsequently signed by a next of kin. Results: We studied 127 patients. Mean sodium intake (mg) was 1295.9 ± 812.3. Eighty-seven (68.5%) patients had a daily sodium intake <1500 mg (group 1) and 40 (31.5%) ≥ 1500 mg (group 2). Correlation between daily sodium intake and daily calorie intake was significant (r = 0.474 [0.327 to 0.599]; p < 0.0001). Daily calorie intake (kcal/kg/day) was lower in group 1 (21.1 ± 6.6; p = 0.0001) than in group 2 (27.1 ± 10.4). Correlation between daily sodium intake and daily protein intake was significant (r = 0.530[0.392 to 0.644]; p < 0.0001). The daily protein intake (grams/kg/day) was lower in group 1 (0.823 ± 0.275; p = 0.0003) than in group 2 (1.061 ± 0.419). Daily intake of magnesium, copper, iron, zinc, and selenium was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2. Daily intake of vitamin A, B2, B3, and C did not differ significantly between group 1 and group 2. Daily intake of vitamin B1 was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2. Significantly lower was, in group 1 than in group 2, the percentage of patients within the target value with regard to intake of calories (11.5% vs. 37.5%; p = 0.001) and proteins (9.2% vs. 27.5%; p = 0.015) as well as of iron (23% vs. 45%; p = 0.020), zinc (13.8% vs. 53.8%; p = 0.008) and vitamin B1 (8.1% vs. 50%; p < 0.001). Conclusion: A low daily intake of sodium is associated with an inadequately low intake of calorie, proteins, minerals, trace elements, and vitamin B1. Nutritional counselling aimed to reduce the intake of sodium in patients on chronic hemodialysis should not disregard an adequate intake of macro-and micronutrients, otherwise the risk of malnutrition is high.
- Dietary intake
- Trace element