Zein nanofibers containing tetradecane as a phase change material (PCM) and cinnamaldehyde as an antioxidant and antibacterial agent were developed by needle-less electrospinning method. They used in sausage production, simultaneously, to provide a temperature-buffering system in food packaging and an antimicrobial-preserving system for reducing of nitrite in sausage formulation, respectively. With increasing tetradecane concentration, viscosity and electrical conductivity of solution increased, diameter and weight production rate of nanofibers decreased. Based on nanofiber morphology and weight production rates data, treatment with 30 % tetradecane was selected as the best sample for future analysis and used in sausage packaging. Crystallization temperature and melting enthalpy of nanofibers containing 30 % tetradecane reduced and super-cooling degree of PCM increased slightly after encapsulation. Nanofibers containing 30 % tetradecane were used for sausages packaging (at the weight ratio of 0.33 % nanofibers /sausages) to investigate their effect in controlling the cold chain, chemical reaction and bacterial growth. Sausages with packaging containing PCM nanofibers and sausages with commercial polyamide packaging (control treatment) could maintain the cool temperature about 8 and 2 h, respectively, when the refrigerator was turned off. The data showed that use of encapsulated tetradecane in sausages packaging can preserve color, texture, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values of sausages. Use of cinnamic aldehyde in sausage formulation could be effective in inhibition of growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results demonstrated that needle-less electrospinning can effectively encapsulate tetradecane and the produced nanofibers can be used to increase the shelf life of perishable food during temperature fluctuations.
- Needle-less electrospinning