The determination of xenobiotics in biological fluids plays a key role in antidoping activities. Substances and methods in this context are listed by the World Antidoping Agency (WADA). The list is revised annually and comprises about 300 substances grouped according to their pharmacological action. The number of samples (urine and in some instances blood) analyzed by antidoping laboratories varies from 2000 to 15,000 each year, depending on the National Testing Authority of each Country. Hence, the main goal of antidoping laboratories is to develop analytical methods able to screen for the maximum number of substances minimizing, by the same token, sample manipulation and costs. Techniques used for the analysis of doping substances are primarily chromatographic methods, in particular Gas Chromatography (GC) coupled with Mass Spectrometry (MS) or Nitrogen Phosphorous Detection (NPD), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with MSn or Ultraviolet (UV) detection, or, mainly for confirmation analysis, Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) and High Resolution (HR) MS. Immunoassays are utilized for some substances, primarily peptide hormones, and a double blotting method is resorted to for recombinant erythropoietin and analogues determination.
|Titolo della pubblicazione ospite||Analytical Techniques for Clinical Chemistry: Methods and Applications.|
|Editor||S Caroli, G Zaray|
|Numero di pagine||12|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Pubblicato - 2012|
- analytical techniques