Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a worldwide health matter with a major care burden, high prevalence, and poor prognosis. Its pathogenesis mainly varies depending on the underlying etiological factors, although it develops from liver cirrhosis in the majority of cases. This review summarizes the role of the most interesting soluble factors as biomarkers for early diagnosis and as recommended targets for treatment in accordance with the new challenges in precision medicine. In the premalignant environment, inflammatory cells release a wide range of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, prostaglandins, and proangiogenic factors, making the liver environment more suitable for hepatocyte tumor progression that starts from acquired genetic mutations. A complex interaction of pro-inflammatory (IL-6, TNF-alpha) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TGF-alpha and -beta), pro-angiogenic molecules (including the Angiopoietins, HGF, PECAM-1, HIF-1 alpha, VEGF), different transcription factors (NF-kB, STAT-3), and their signaling pathways are involved in the development of HCC. Since cytokines are expressed and released during the different stages of HCC progression, their measurement, by different available methods, can provide in-depth information on the identification and management of HCC.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)1-15
Numero di pagine15
RivistaJournal of Personalized Medicine
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2023


  • biomarkers
  • cytokines
  • hepatocellular carcinoma
  • personalized medicine


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