Current Medical Therapy and Revascularization in Peripheral Artery Disease of the Lower Limbs: Impacts on Subclinical Chronic Inflammation

Andrea Leonardo Cecchini, Federico Biscetti, Matteo Manzato, Lorenzo Lo Sasso, Maria Margherita Rando, Maria Anna Nicolazzi, Enrica Rossini, Luis H. Eraso, Paul J. Dimuzio, Massimo Massetti, Antonio Gasbarrini, Andrea Flex

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista


Peripheral artery disease (PAD), coronary artery disease (CAD), and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) are characterized by atherosclerosis and inflammation as their underlying mechanisms. This paper aims to conduct a literature review on pharmacotherapy for PAD, specifically focusing on how different drug classes target pro-inflammatory pathways. The goal is to enhance the choice of therapeutic plans by considering their impact on the chronic subclinical inflammation that is associated with PAD development and progression. We conducted a comprehensive review of currently published original articles, narratives, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. The aim was to explore the relationship between PAD and inflammation and evaluate the influence of current pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions on the underlying chronic subclinical inflammation. Our findings indicate that the existing treatments have added anti-inflammatory properties that can potentially delay or prevent PAD progression and improve outcomes, independent of their effects on traditional risk factors. Although inflammation-targeted therapy in PAD shows promising potential, its benefits have not been definitively proven yet. However, it is crucial not to overlook the pleiotropic properties of the currently available treatments, as they may provide valuable insights for therapeutic strategies. Further studies focusing on the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of these treatments could enhance our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the residual risk in PAD and pave the way for the development of novel therapies.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)104-132
Numero di pagine29
RivistaInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2023


  • atherosclerosis
  • inflammation
  • residual risk
  • peripheral artery disease
  • lower extremity arterial disease


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