Current evidence on vaccinations in pediatric and adult patients with systemic autoinflammatory diseases

Maria Grazia Massaro, Mario Caldarelli, Laura Franza, Marcello Candelli, Antonio Gasbarrini, Giovanni Gambassi, Rossella Cianci, Donato Rigante

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista


Systemic autoinflammatory diseases (SAIDs) are defined by recurrent febrile attacks associated with protean manifestations involving joints, the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and the central nervous system, combined with elevated inflammatory markers, and are caused by a dysregulation of the innate immune system. From a clinical standpoint, the most known SAIDs are familial Mediterranean fever (FMF); cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS); mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD); and periodic fever, aphthosis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome. Current guidelines recommend the regular sequential administration of vaccines for all individuals with SAIDs. However, these patients have a much lower vaccination coverage rates in ‘real-world’ epidemiological studies than the general population. The main purpose of this review was to evaluate the scientific evidence available on both the efficacy and safety of vaccines in patients with SAIDs. From this analysis, neither serious adverse effects nor poorer antibody responses have been observed after vaccination in patients with SAIDs on treatment with biologic agents. More specifically, no new-onset immune-mediated complications have been observed following immunizations. Post-vaccination acute flares were significantly less frequent in FMF patients treated with colchicine alone than in those treated with both colchicine and canakinumab. Conversely, a decreased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been proved for patients with FMF after vaccination with the mRNA-based BNT162b2 vaccine. Canakinumab did not appear to affect the ability to produce antibodies against non-live vaccines in patients with CAPS, especially if administered with a time lag from the vaccination. On the other hand, our analysis has shown that immunization against Streptococcus pneumoniae, specifically with the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, was associated with a higher incidence of adverse reactions in CAPS patients. In addition, disease flares might be elicited by vaccinations in children with MKD, though no adverse events have been noted despite concurrent treatment with either anakinra or canakinumab. PFAPA patients seem to be less responsive to measles, mumps, and rubella-vaccine, but have shown higher antibody response than healthy controls following vaccination against hepatitis A. In consideration of the clinical frailty of both children and adults with SAIDs, all vaccinations remain ‘highly’ recommended in this category of patients despite the paucity of data available.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)1-15
Numero di pagine15
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2023


  • Autoinflammation
  • Vaccine


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