Consumers' preference and sensory profile of bottom fermented red beers of the Italian market

Gianluca Donadini, Maria Daria Fumi, I. R. Newby-Clark

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivistapeer review

13 Citazioni (Scopus)


The patterns of consumers' preferences for bottom fermented red beers (BFRBs) available on the Italian market were explored. 246 regular beer consumers hedonically rated eight BFRBs of different styles readily available in the off-premise chain of the Italianmarket on a 9-point hedonic scale in a natural environment of consumption. A trained panel (n = 8) evaluated 34 sensory properties of the eight beers. The relations between consumers' hedonic scores and the sensory characteristics of the BFRBs were investigated with PLS-Regression. Statistically significant differences (p b 0.05) among the eight BFRBs were found for the 34 sensory properties evaluated in this study. Principal Component Analysis of the mean descriptive data showed that BFRBs were primarily distinguished on the basis of malt derived sensory attributes, and secondarily on the basis of their perceived level of body along a sweetness gradient that separated medium bodied, moderately sweet BFRBs from full bodied samples moderately high to high in sweetness. Consumers' hedonic responses to BFRBswere extremely heterogeneous across samples (p b 0.001). The source of the variability appeared to be a specialty BFRB, which contains added red fruits. It was highly appreciated and significantly preferred over other BFRBs, which were moderately liked and not distinguishable from each other. PLS-Regression clustered the consumers in homogeneous groups according to their liking of the beers and the sensory characteristics of those beers. Nearly 4 consumers out of 10 (Sweet Seekers) highly appreciated sweet and fruity samples, which were perceived as having a high level of alcohol. Nearly one consumer out of five (Mild Flavor Lovers) tended to prefer samples brewed from less intensively kilned/roasted malts. Those beers carry mild flavors and are perceived as having a lower level of alcohol. One consumer out of seven (Sweet Avoiders) equally liked all the BFRBs served to them but beer A. This beer was perceived as too bodied and rich in alcohol, and too intense fruity, and sweet, with solvent-like notes. One consumer out of seven (Flavor Seekers) disliked less alcoholic BFRBs. Those BRFBs, brewed frommoderately kilned/roasted malts, have amilder flavor and less intense mouthfeel perceptions. Gender and age were not significant predictors of preference, althoughmale consumers weremore frequent beer drinkers, exhibited more variable beer choice, sought flavor more and avoided flavor less than did female beer drinkers. The findings of this study should help brewers and restaurateurs understand consumer preference patterns for BFRBs and enable them to engineer optimal strategies to target specific segments of the beer market.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)69-80
Numero di pagine12
RivistaFood Research International
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2014
Pubblicato esternamente


  • Beer
  • Consumer preference
  • Descriptive analysis of beer
  • Drivers of preference


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