Inflammation significantly impacts the progression of Huntington's disease (HD) and the mutant HTT protein determines a pro-inflammatory activation of microglia. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) from the amniotic membrane (hAMSC), and their conditioned medium (CM-hAMSC), have been shown to possess protective effects in vitro and in vivo in animal models of immune-based disorders and of traumatic brain injury, which have been shown to be mediated by their immunomodulatory properties. In this study, in the R6/2 mouse model for HD we demonstrate that mice treated with CM-hAMSC display less severe signs of neurological dysfunction than saline-treated ones. CM-hAMSC treatment significantly delayed the development of the hind paw clasping response during tail suspension, reduced deficits in rotarod performance, and decreased locomotor activity in an open field test. The effects of CM-hAMSC on neurological function were reflected in a significant amelioration in brain pathology, including reduction in striatal atrophy and the formation of striatal neuronal intranuclear inclusions. In addition, while no significant increase was found in the expression of BDNF levels after CM-hAMSC treatment, a significant decrease of microglia activation and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels were observed. These results support the concept that CM-hAMSC could act by modulating inflammatory cells, and more specifically microglia.
- Cell Biology
- Huntington's disease
- Molecular Medicine
- human amniotic mesenchymal stem/stromal cells